Agents that selectively target the mycobacterial membrane could potentially shorten treatment time for tuberculosis, reduce relapse, and curtail emergence of resistant strains. The lipophilicity and extensive charge-delocalized state of the triphenylphosphonium cation strongly favor accumulation within bacterial membranes. Here, we explored the antimycobacterial activities and membrane-targeting properties of indolylalkyltriphenylphosphonium analogues. The most active analogues preferentially inhibited growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MIC50 2-4 μM) and were bactericidal against Mycobacterium bovis BCG (MBC99 3 μM). In spite of their propensity to accumulate within membranes, we found no evidence that these compounds permeabilized mycobacterial membranes or induced cell-envelope stress. Our investigations indicated that their bacterical effects stem from sustained depolarization of mycobacterial membranes and ensuing disruptive effects on electron transfer and cell division.