Objective: This study aims to describe the overall cumulative effect of sevoflurane on kidney function in healthy patients in terms of mean plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance, urinary protein, and glucose excretion at 24 and 72 hours post-anesthesia.
Data retrieval: A systematic literature search using MEDLINE and EMBASE as primary search engines was conducted. Articles, relevant abstracts, and citations dated January 1, 1995 to June 30, 2016 were retrieved.
Data selection: Search terms included the pharmacological generic name sevoflurane. Search was expanded using the terms "renal function" OR "kidney" function AND "creatinine" OR "blood urea nitrogen" OR "creatinine clearance" OR "proteinuria" OR "glucosuria" OR "nephrotoxicity." Limitations included randomized controlled trial, humans, and ages 19 and above, to include English and non-English text formats. All bibliographic indices for the relevant journals identified were also searched and collated according to relevance.
Main outcome measures: Changes in serum/plasma creatinine, BUN, urinary protein, and glucose excretion of sevoflurane at 24 and 72-hours were determined.
Results: Six relevant studies were qualified by both the inclusion criteria and inclusion dates. This review consists of 873 patients, 65% are males and 35% are females, with mean age of 56 ± 3 years. Sevoflurane was compared to isoflurane with regard to its nephrotoxic potential. Analyses on the effects of sevoflurane were performed on serum/plasma creatinine, BUN, urinary protein, and glucose excretion at 24 and 72 hours which showed no statistical difference between sevoflurane and isoflurane.
Conclusion: In an apparently healthy adult without coexisting renal disorder, sevoflurane does not produce elevations in creatinine and BUN above the established upper limit of the reference range.
Keywords: blood urea nitrogen; compound A; creatinine; creatinine clearance; glucosuria; isoflurane; meta-analysis; nephrotoxicity; proteinuria; sevoflurane.