Objective This study represents the first 10 year analysis of the efficacy and toxicity of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in the treatment of early low-risk prostate cancer. Materials and methods Two hundred and thirty males were treated with Cyberknife SBRT to a dose of 35 Gray (Gy) or 36.25 Gy in five consecutive days. All patients had a Gleason score of six and a PSA < 10ng/ml. Median follow-up is nine years. The median age was 69.5 years and median prostate specific antigen (PSA) was 5.6ng/ml. The treatment was delivered with homogeneous planning with a dose prescription of 82-87% of the maximum dose to cover the planning target volume (PTV). Results Ten-year biochemical disease free survival was 93% with either dose. Local control was 98.4%. Median prostate specific antigen (PSA) dropped to 0.1 by five years and has remained there. Toxicity was mild with 10% of patients having Grade two-three late urinary toxicity and 4% having the late grade two rectal toxicity. Mean Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) Quality of Life (QOL) scores declined initially for bowel and urinary domains, but recovered to baseline, where they remain. EPIC sexual scores have declined by 40%. Discussion/Conclusions Stereotactic body radiotherapy to a dose of 35 Gy-36.25 Gy is an effective treatment for early low-risk prostate cancer, with acceptably low toxicity. There appears to be no benefit to increasing the dose beyond 35 Gy. Ten-year biochemical disease free survival appears to be higher than with standard intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).
Keywords: carcinoma; prostate; stereotactic radiotherapy.