Pediculosis, the condition of being infested by head lice, is a major community health problem in the United States. Head lice, the most common species in humans, occupy considerable amounts of time and energy both within schools and the medical community. The condition creates school and family disturbances and personal embarrassment--consequences far exceeding its medical effects. Because parents are often embarrassed when they are informed about a head lice infestation, they often do not approach the subject with their health care providers. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) need to incorporate education relating the diagnosis and management of pediculosis in the well child visit. PNPs can dispel the common myths that have existed for so long to help open communication with parents and children to promote safe and proper treatment. Early detection is vital in preventing epidemics.