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Multicenter Study
, 24 (4), 638-649

The Association Between Burning Mouth Syndrome and Sleep Disturbance: A Case-Control Multicentre Study

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Multicenter Study

The Association Between Burning Mouth Syndrome and Sleep Disturbance: A Case-Control Multicentre Study

D Adamo et al. Oral Dis.

Abstract

Objectives: To investigate the quality of sleep and the psychological profiles of a large cohort of Italian patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and to clarify the relationships between these variables and pain.

Methods: In this case-control study, 200 patients with BMS vs an equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls, recruited in 10 universities, were enrolled. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), Numeric Pain Intensity Scale (NRS) and Total Pain Rating Index (T-PRI) were administered. Descriptive statistics, including the Mann-Whitney U test and hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis, were used.

Results: Poor sleep quality (PSQI ≥ 5) was present in 78.8% (160) patients with BMS. BMS patients had statistically higher scores in all items of the PSQI and ESS than the healthy controls (p < .001). A depressed mood and anxiety correlated positively with sleep disturbance. The Pearson correlations were 0.570 for the PSQI vs HAM-D (p < .001) and 0.549 for the PSQI vs HAM-A (p < .001). Pain intensity (NRS) poorly correlated to sleep quality; the Pearson correlation was 0.162 for the PSQI vs NRS (p = .021).

Conclusions: The BMS patients showed a poor sleep quality, anxiety and depression, as compared with the controls, highlighting the relationships between oral burning, sleep and mood.

Keywords: anxiety; burning; insomnia symptoms; mood disorders; pain; sleep.

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