In 6 male subjects the diurnal variation of urinary oxalic acid excretion was studied after ingestion of chocolate, a food stuff rich in oxalic acid. The ingestion of chocolate caused a striking but transient increase in urinary oxalic acid excretion due to its absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The peak excretion rates occurred 2-4 h after the intake of the chocolate. The peak values were 235% of the fasting excretion rate in the trial with 50 g chocolate and 289% in the trial with 100 g chocolate and reached the amounts found in cases with primary hyperoxaluria. The administration of ranitidine had no influence on oxalic acid absorption. The transient hyperoxaluria observed seems to be an important factor for the formation of calcium oxalate calculi in patients on risk for stone disorders.