Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the most advanced form of peripheral artery disease. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and high management costs. It carries a high risk of amputation and local infection. Moreover, cardiovascular complications remain a major concern. Although it is a well-known entity and new technological and therapeutic advances have been made, this condition remains poorly addressed, with significantly heterogeneous management, especially in nonexperienced centers. This review, from a third-level dedicated inpatient and outpatient cardioangiology structure, aims to provide an updated summary on the topic of CLI of its complexity, encompassing epidemiological, social, economical and, in particular, diagnostic/imaging issues, together with potential therapeutic strategies (medical, endovascular, and surgical), including the evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors, the diagnosis, and treatment together with prognostic stratification.
Keywords: CLI; LEAD; WIfI; arterial stiffness; intermittent claudication; peripheral arterial disease.