Cytoprotective Effects of Citicoline and Homotaurine against Glutamate and High Glucose Neurotoxicity in Primary Cultured Retinal Cells

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017:2017:2825703. doi: 10.1155/2017/2825703. Epub 2017 Oct 15.


Citicoline and homotaurine are renowned compounds that exhibit potent neuroprotective activities through distinct molecular mechanisms. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate whether cotreatment with citicoline and homotaurine affects cell survival in primary retinal cultures under experimental conditions simulating retinal neurodegeneration. Primary cultures were obtained from the retina of fetal rats and exposed to citicoline plus homotaurine (100 μM). Subsequently, neurotoxicity was induced using excitotoxic levels of glutamate and high glucose concentrations. The effects on retinal cultures were assessed by cell viability and immunodetection of apoptotic oligonucleosomes. The results showed that a combination of citicoline and homotaurine synergistically decreases proapoptotic effects associated with glutamate- and high glucose-treated retinal cultures. This study provides an insight into the potential application of citicoline and homotaurine as a valuable tool to exert neuroprotective effects against retinal damage.

MeSH terms

  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cytidine Diphosphate Choline / metabolism*
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Glutamic Acid / metabolism*
  • Neurotoxicity Syndromes
  • Retina / drug effects*
  • Taurine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Taurine / metabolism


  • Taurine
  • Glutamic Acid
  • Cytidine Diphosphate Choline
  • tramiprosate
  • Glucose