There is a pressing need for further advancement in tissue engineering of functional organs with a view to providing a more clinically relevant model for drug development and reduce the dependence on organ donation. Polymer-based scaffolds, such as polycaprolactone (PCL), have been highlighted as a potential avenue for tissue engineered kidneys, but there is little investigation down this stream. Focus within kidney tissue engineering has been on two-dimensional cell culture and decellularised tissue. Electrospun polymer scaffolds can be created with a variety of fibre diameters and have shown a great potential in many areas. The variation in morphology of tissue engineering scaffold has been shown to effect the way cells behave and integrate. In this study we examined the cellular response to scaffold architecture of novel electrospun scaffold for kidney tissue engineering. Fibre diameters of 1.10 ± 0.16 μm and 4.49 ± 0.47 μm were used with three distinct scaffold architectures. Traditional random fibres were spun onto a mandrel rotating at 250 rpm, aligned at 1800 rpm with novel cryogenic fibres spun onto a mandrel loaded with dry ice rotating at 250 rpm. Human kidney epithelial cells were grown for 1 and 2 weeks. Fibre morphology had no effect of cell viability in scaffolds with a large fibre diameter but significant differences were seen in smaller fibres. Fibre diameter had a significant effect in aligned and cryogenic scaffold. Imaging detailed the differences in cell attachment due to scaffold differences. These results show that architecture of the scaffold has a profound effect on kidney cells; whether that is effects of fibre diameter on the cell attachment and viability or the effect of fibre arrangement on the distribution of cells and their alignment with fibres. Results demonstrate that PCL scaffolds have the capability to maintain kidney cells life and should be investigated further as a potential scaffold in kidney tissue engineering.