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Comparative Study
. 2018 Sep 1;33(9):1620-1627.
doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfx313.

Comparative Effectiveness of Allopurinol, Febuxostat and Benzbromarone on Renal Function in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients With Hyperuricemia: A 13-year Inception Cohort Study

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Comparative Study

Comparative Effectiveness of Allopurinol, Febuxostat and Benzbromarone on Renal Function in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients With Hyperuricemia: A 13-year Inception Cohort Study

Hsu-Wen Chou et al. Nephrol Dial Transplant. .

Abstract

Background: Direct comparisons of the effectiveness of allopurinol with that of other urate-lowering agents in chronic kidney disease (CKD) populations, as well as guideline recommendations for clinical practice, are lacking.

Methods: We constructed a pharmacoepidemiology cohort study by including patients from Taiwan's long-term integrated CKD care program to compare the effectiveness among allopurinol, febuxostat and benzbromarone in reducing the risk of progression to dialysis. A total of 874 patients with hyperuricemia who were newly treated with allopurinol, febuxostat or benzbromarone were included. The primary and secondary outcomes were incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the serum uric acid (SUA) changes from baseline, respectively. The results were analyzed using multiple Cox proportional models adjusted for multinomial propensity scores. For subgroup analyses, we further stratified patients according to whether their latest SUA level reached the therapeutic target.

Results: Compared with allopurinol, benzbromarone therapy was associated with a reduced risk of progression to dialysis, the adjusted hazard ratio was 0.50 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.99). Patients who received allopurinol or febuxostat exhibited a comparable risk of ESRD [adjusted hazard ratio, 0.99 (0.40-2.44)]. Febuxostat was significantly more potent than allopurinol or benzbromarone in lowering SUA levels in the fully adjusted model. Among patients who reached the therapeutic target, those with febuxostat and benzbromarone initiation had a significantly lower risk of ESRD.

Conclusions: In conclusion, compared with conventional allopurinol, febuxostat and benzbromarone may be more effective in reducing the risk of progression to dialysis and in lowering SUA levels in CKD populations.

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