Conditioning exercises in ski jumping: biomechanical relationship of squat jumps, imitation jumps, and hill jumps

Sports Biomech. 2019 Feb;18(1):63-74. doi: 10.1080/14763141.2017.1383506. Epub 2017 Nov 22.


As hill jumps are very time-consuming, ski jumping athletes often perform various imitation jumps during training. The performed jumps should be similar to hill jumps, but a direct comparison of the kinetic and kinematic parameters has not been performed yet. Therefore, this study aimed to correlate 11 common parameters during hill jumps (Oberstdorf Germany), squat jumps (wearing indoor shoes), and various imitation jumps (rolling 4°, rolling flat, static; jumping equipment or indoor shoes) on a custom-built instrumented vehicle with a catch by the coach. During the performed jumps, force and video data of the take-off of 10 athletes were measured. The imitation and squat jumps were then ranked. The main difference between the hill jumps and the imitation and squat jumps is the higher maximal force loading rate during the hill jumps. Imitation jumps performed on a rolling platform, on flat ground were the most similar to hill jumps in terms of the force-time, and leg joint kinematic properties. Thus, non-hill jumps with a technical focus should be performed from a rolling platform with a flat inrun with normal indoor shoes or jumping equipment, and high normal force loading rates should be the main focus of imitation training.

Keywords: Ski jumping performance; jump training; kinetics and kinematics.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Athletes
  • Biomechanical Phenomena*
  • Exercise Test
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Physical Conditioning, Human
  • Posture
  • Skiing / physiology*
  • Video Recording
  • Young Adult