A multivariate analysis of preoperative risk factors in patients with common bile duct stones. Implications for treatment

Ann Surg. 1989 Feb;209(2):157-61. doi: 10.1097/00000658-198902000-00004.


A multivariate analysis of 30 preoperative risk factors was undertaken in 248 patients who underwent surgery alone for common bile duct (CBD) stones and in 190 patients who had endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES), 77 of whom subsequently also had surgery. Independently significant risk factors in those undergoing surgery were the serum bilirubin level, the use of preoperative ES, and the presence of medical risk factors; in patients undergoing ES, only the serum bilirubin and albumin, but not medical risk factors, were of independent significance. The major implications of this study are, first, that high-risk patients should be treated by ES without subsequent surgery, and second, that "fit patients should be treated by surgery alone without routine preoperative ES.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Bilirubin / blood
  • Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde
  • Evaluation Studies as Topic
  • Female
  • Gallstones / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • Preoperative Care
  • Probability
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Serum Albumin / analysis
  • Sphincterotomy, Transduodenal / adverse effects


  • Serum Albumin
  • Bilirubin