The status of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) in carriers of choroideremia and X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) was determined by vitreous fluorophotometry (VF) and compared with that in female control subjects. Electroretinographic (ERG) amplitudes were measured to determine the overall functional integrity of retinal rods and cones. Comparison of the VF results showed an abnormal BRB in at least some carriers of XLRP, particularly those with peripheral fundus pigmentary changes, but not in carriers of choroideremia with even moderately extensive pigmentary changes. The abnormal BRB in XLRP carriers, with or without peripheral fundus pigmentary changes, was associated with at least moderate to moderately extensive reduction in scotopic ERG amplitudes, while the normal VF results in choroideremia carriers were associated with normal scotopic ERG amplitudes. However, in XLRP carriers, mild to modest reductions in ERG scotopic responses were seen in the presence of normal VF findings.