Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) regulate protein functions and interactions. ADP-ribosylation is a PTM, in which ADP-ribosyltransferases use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to modify target proteins with ADP-ribose. This modification can occur as mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylation. The latter involves the synthesis of long ADP-ribose chains that have specific properties due to the nature of the polymer. ADP-Ribosylation is reversed by hydrolases that cleave the glycosidic bonds either between ADP-ribose units or between the protein proximal ADP-ribose and a given amino acid side chain. Here we discuss the properties of the different enzymes associated with ADP-ribosylation and the consequences of this PTM on substrates. Furthermore, the different domains that interpret either mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylation and the implications for cellular processes are described.