Objective/Background: Sleep difficulty is both a common symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a risk factor for the development and maintenance of PTSD symptomatology. Gender differences in sleep following trauma exposure have been posited to contribute to the increased risk for the development of PTSD among women, but the persistence and long-term contributions of these potential differences to the maintenance and severity of PTSD symptoms is unclear. Participants: Men and women reporting a history of trauma exposure (n = 112, 63% female) participated in this study. Methods: Subjective sleep complaints and PTSD symptom severity were assessed using well-validated measures (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PTSD Symptom Checklist). Multivariable regression models (full sample and gender-stratified) were used to predict PTSD symptom severity from global, subscale, and individual item sleep parameters, adjusted for gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, and body mass index. Results: In the full sample, traditional measures of sleep quality and sleep disturbance were associated with PTSD symptom severity. Difficulty falling asleep, poor sleep quality, and sleep disturbance from a variety of sources were related to higher PTSD symptom severity in men, while self-reported sleep disturbance related to nightmares and emotional regulation were associated with PTSD symptom severity among women. Conclusions: These findings add to the limited literature on gender-specific risk factors related to sleep and PTSD, and may inform intervention development and implementation related to PTSD severity among vulnerable adults.
Keywords: Gender; PTSD; sleep.