Evidence indicates that the gut microbiota and/or interactions between the microbiota and the host immune system are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Strategies that target the microbiota have emerged as potential therapies and, of these, probiotics have gained the greatest attention. Data derived from animal models of IBD have revealed the potential of several bacterial strains to modify the natural history of IBD. However, thought there is some evidence for efficacy in ulcerative colitis and in pouchitis, in particular, there has been little indication that probiotics exert any benefit in Crohn disease. More targeted approaches involving live bacteria, genetically modified bacteria, and bacterial products are now being evaluated.
Keywords: Crohn disease; Inflammation; Inflammatory bowel disease; Microbiome; Microbiota; Pouchitis; Probiotic; Ulcerative colitis.
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