Human genetic studies implicate LRRK2 and RAB7L1 in susceptibility to Parkinson disease (PD). These two genes function in the same pathway, as knockout of Rab7L1 results in phenotypes similar to LRRK2 knockout, and studies in cells and model organisms demonstrate LRRK2 and Rab7L1 interact in the endolysosomal system. Recently, a subset of Rab proteins have been identified as LRRK2 kinase substrates. Herein, we find that Rab8, Rab10, and Rab7L1 must be membrane and GTP-bound for LRRK2 phosphorylation. LRRK2 mutations that cause PD including R1441C, Y1699C, and G2019S all increase LRRK2 phosphorylation of Rab7L1 four-fold over wild-type LRRK2 in cells, resulting in the phosphorylation of nearly one-third the available Rab7L1 protein in cells. In contrast, the most common pathogenic LRRK2 mutation, G2019S, does not upregulate LRRK2-mediated phosphorylation of Rab8 or Rab10. LRRK2 interaction with membrane and GTP-bound Rab7L1, but not Rab8 or Rab10, results in the activation of LRRK2 autophosphorylation at the serine 1292 position, required for LRRK2 toxicity. Further, Rab7L1 controls the proportion of LRRK2 that is membrane-associated, and LRRK2 mutations enhance Rab7L1-mediated recruitment of LRRK2 to the trans-Golgi network. Interaction studies with the Rab8 and Rab10 GTPase-activating protein TBC1D4/AS160 demonstrate that LRRK2 phosphorylation may block membrane and GTP-bound Rab protein interaction with effectors. These results suggest reciprocal regulation between LRRK2 and Rab protein substrates, where Rab7L1-mediated upregulation of LRRK2 kinase activity results in the stabilization of membrane and GTP-bound Rab proteins that may be unable to interact with Rab effector proteins.
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