Translation and cultural adaptation of the CLEFT-Q for use in Colombia, Chile, and Spain

Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017 Nov 28;15(1):228. doi: 10.1186/s12955-017-0805-7.


Background: Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) is a common congenital craniofacial anomaly that may negatively affect an individual's appearance, health-related quality of life, or speech. In Spain, Colombia, and Chile the overall prevalence of CL/P ranges from 0.53 to 1.59 cases per 1000 live births. Currently, there is no patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument that is specific for patients with CL/P. The CLEFT-Q is a new PRO instrument developed to measure outcomes of treatment in patients 8 to 29 years of age with CL/P. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the CLEFT-Q for use in Colombia, Chile, and Spain.

Methods: The CLEFT-Q was translated from English to 3 Spanish language varieties (Colombian, Chilean, and Spanish (Spain)) and Catalan. Translation and cultural adaptation guidelines set forth by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research were followed.

Results: The field- test version of the CLEFT-Q consisted of 13 scales (total 154 items) measuring appearance, health-related quality of life, and facial function. Forward translations revealed 10 (7%) items that were difficult to translate into Chilean, and back translations identified 34 (22%) and 21 (13%) items whose meaning differed from the English version in at least 1 of the 3 Spanish varieties and Catalan respectively. Twenty-one participants took part in cognitive debriefing interviews. Participants were recruited from plastic surgery centres in Bogotá, Colombia (n = 4), Santiago, Chile (n = 7), and Barcelona, Spain (n = 10). Most participants were males (n = 14, 67%) and were diagnosed with CL/P (n = 17, 81%). Participants reported difficulty understanding 1 item in the Colombian, 1 item in the Spanish (Spain), and 11 items from the Catalan version. Comparison of the 3 Spanish varieties revealed 61 (40%) of the 154 items whose wording differed across the 3 Spanish versions.

Conclusion: Translation and cultural adaptation processes provided evidence of transferability of the CLEFT-Q scales into 3 Spanish varieties and Catalan, as semantic, idiomatic, experiential, and conceptual equivalence of the items, instructions, and response options were achieved.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Chile
  • Cleft Lip / psychology*
  • Cleft Palate / psychology*
  • Colombia
  • Culture*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Patient Reported Outcome Measures
  • Quality of Life*
  • Spain
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards*
  • Translations
  • Young Adult