Low-fat yogurt consumption reduces biomarkers of chronic inflammation and inhibits markers of endotoxin exposure in healthy premenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial

Br J Nutr. 2017 Dec;118(12):1043-1051. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517003038. Epub 2017 Nov 28.


The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of low-fat dairy product consumption are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether low-fat yogurt reduces biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endotoxin exposure in women. Premenopausal women (BMI 18·5-27 and 30-40 kg/m2) were randomised to consume 339 g of low-fat yogurt (yogurt non-obese (YN); yogurt obese (YO)) or 324 g of soya pudding (control non-obese; control obese (CO)) daily for 9 weeks (n 30/group). Fasting blood samples were analysed for IL-6, TNF-α/soluble TNF II (sTNF-RII), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, anandamide, monocyte gene expression, soluble CD14 (sCD14), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS binding protein (LBP), IgM endotoxin-core antibody (IgM EndoCAb), and zonulin. BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were also determined. After 9-week yogurt consumption, YO and YN had decreased TNF-α/sTNFR-RII. Yogurt consumption increased plasma IgM EndoCAb regardless of obesity status. sCD14 was not affected by diet, but LBP/sCD14 was lowered by yogurt consumption in both YN and YO. Yogurt intervention increased plasma 2-arachidonoylglycerol in YO but not YN. YO peripheral blood mononuclear cells expression of NF-κB inhibitor α and transforming growth factor β1 increased relative to CO at 9 weeks. Other biomarkers were unchanged by diet. CO and YO gained approximately 0·9 kg in body weight. YO had 3·6 % lower diastolic blood pressure at week 3. Low-fat yogurt for 9 weeks reduced biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endotoxin exposure in premenopausal women compared with a non-dairy control food. This trial was registered as NCT01686204.

Keywords: 2-AG 2-arachidonoylglycerol; AEA anandamide; CO control obese; IgM EndoCAb IgM endotoxin-core antibody; LBP lipopolysaccharide-binding protein; LPS lipopolysaccharide; TLR4 Toll-like receptor 4; YN yogurt non-obese; YO yogurt obese; sCD14 soluble CD14; Chronic inflammation; Dairy products; Endotoxin exposure; Low-fat yogurt; Obesity.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Acute-Phase Proteins
  • Adult
  • Anthropometry
  • Arachidonic Acids / blood
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Carrier Proteins / blood
  • Chronic Disease
  • Cytokines / blood
  • Diet*
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fats / analysis
  • Endocannabinoids / blood
  • Endotoxemia / blood
  • Endotoxemia / diet therapy
  • Endotoxins / toxicity*
  • Female
  • Glycerides / blood
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin M / blood
  • Inflammation / blood*
  • Inflammation / diet therapy*
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / blood
  • Middle Aged
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Polyunsaturated Alkamides / blood
  • Yogurt / analysis*
  • Young Adult


  • Acute-Phase Proteins
  • Arachidonic Acids
  • Biomarkers
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cytokines
  • Dietary Fats
  • Endocannabinoids
  • Endotoxins
  • Glycerides
  • Immunoglobulin M
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • NF-kappa B
  • Polyunsaturated Alkamides
  • lipopolysaccharide-binding protein
  • glyceryl 2-arachidonate
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • anandamide

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01686204