Regulation of skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation by transforming growth factor-beta, insulin-like growth factor I, and fibroblast growth factor

J Cell Physiol. 1989 Feb;138(2):311-5. doi: 10.1002/jcp.1041380213.


Skeletal muscle satellite cells were cultured from mature rats and were treated in vitro with various combinations of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). In serum-free defined medium the following observations were made: TGF-beta depressed proliferation and inhibited differentiation; FGF stimulated proliferation and depressed differentiation; IGF-I stimulated proliferation to a small degree but demonstrated a more pronounced stimulation of differentiation. In evaluating combinations of these three factors, the differentiation inhibiting effect of TGF-beta could not be counteracted by any combination of IGF-I or FGF. The proliferation-depressing activity of TGF-beta, however, could not inhibit the mitogenic activity of FGF. Maximum stimulation of proliferation was observed in the presence of both FGF and IGF-I. The highest percentage fusion was also observed under these conditions, but differentiation with minimal proliferation resulted from treatment with IGF-I, alone. By altering the concentrations of TGF-beta, FGF, and IGF-I, satellite cells can be induced to proliferate, differentiate, or to remain quiescent.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Division
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors / pharmacology*
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / pharmacology*
  • Male
  • Muscles / cytology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred Strains
  • Somatomedins / pharmacology*
  • Transforming Growth Factors / pharmacology*


  • Somatomedins
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • Transforming Growth Factors