Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease with significant morbidity and mortality. There is evidence that vitamin D deficiency can be associated with infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of vitamin D between patients with CAP and healthy controls.
Methods: In a case-control study on 73 patients with CAP and 76 healthy controls, the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) was measured. Severity and outcomes of disease and also duration of hospital stay were compared in patients with different levels of 25(OH)D. The severity of CAP was assessed using the CURB-65 score (confusion, uremia, respiratory rate, low blood pressure, age ≥65 years) and was also reflected by the length of hospital stay, admission to intensive care unit (ICU), and 30-day mortality.
Results: In total, 81.2% of the study population had vitamin D levels <30 ng/dL. The risk of pneumonia among subjects with deficient vitamin D levels was 3.69 (95% CI: 1.46, 9.31) times of those with sufficient vitamin D level (P=0.006). Prevalence of severe deficiency of vitamin D in scores three and four of CURB-65 (59.38%), was far more than scores one and two (31.71%). Also, results indicated patients with severe deficiency had a higher risk for ICU admission, 30-day mortality, and longer hospitalization stay, but these were not statistically significant.
Conclusion: According to findings, a low level of 25(OH)D is associated with a higher incidence of CAP and more severe disease. It is recommended to pay more attention to vitamin D deficiency in infectious diseases, particularly in CAP patients.
Keywords: community-acquired infections; pneumonia; vitamin D deficiency.