[Metabolic Disorders as Paraneoplastic Syndromes]

Internist (Berl). 2018 Feb;59(2):114-124. doi: 10.1007/s00108-017-0357-2.
[Article in German]


Paraneoplastic syndromes are characterized by the tumor-induced release of peptide hormones and/or the initiation of immune phenomena, which elicit clinical changes and alterations in laboratory parameters independent of the tumor size and spread. In addition to neurological, endocrinal and rheumatological phenotypes, metabolic alterations play a special role in the clinical routine as they commonly present with acute symptoms in an emergency situation and necessitate immediate diagnosis and prompt initiation of treatment. Metabolic alterations within the framework of malignant diseases should be treated in a multidisciplinary team and it is often necessary to perform monitoring and treatment in an intensive care unit. This article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic options for metabolic disorders due to paraneoplastic syndromes, such as hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and a special variant of tumor-induced metabolic disorders due to tumor lysis syndrome.

Keywords: Hypercalcemia; Hypoglycemia; Pancreatic neoplasms; Parathyroid hormone-related protein; Tumor lysis syndrome.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Humans
  • Hypercalcemia / diagnosis
  • Hypercalcemia / epidemiology
  • Hypercalcemia / therapy
  • Hypoglycemia / diagnosis
  • Hypoglycemia / epidemiology
  • Hypoglycemia / therapy
  • Metabolic Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Metabolic Diseases / epidemiology
  • Metabolic Diseases / therapy
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • Paraneoplastic Syndromes / diagnosis*
  • Paraneoplastic Syndromes / epidemiology
  • Paraneoplastic Syndromes / therapy
  • Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / blood
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Tumor Lysis Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Tumor Lysis Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Tumor Lysis Syndrome / therapy


  • Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein