Purpose The incidence of human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal cancers has risen rapidly in recent decades among men in the United States. We investigated the US population-level effect of prophylactic HPV vaccination on the burden of oral HPV infection, the principal cause of HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of men and women 18 to 33 years of age (N = 2,627) within the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2014, a representative sample of the US population. Oral HPV infection with vaccine types 16, 18, 6, or 11 was compared by HPV vaccination status, as measured by self-reported receipt of at least one dose of the HPV vaccine. Analyses accounted for the complex sampling design and were adjusted for age, sex, and race. Statistical significance was assessed using a quasi-score test. Results Between 2011 and 2014, 18.3% of the US population 18 to 33 years of age reported receipt of at least one dose of the HPV vaccine before the age of 26 years (29.2% in women and 6.9% in men; P < .001). The prevalence of oral HPV16/18/6/11 infections was significantly reduced in vaccinated versus unvaccinated individuals (0.11% v 1.61%; Padj = .008), corresponding to an estimated 88.2% (95% CI, 5.7% to 98.5%) reduction in prevalence after model adjustment for age, sex, and race. Notably, the prevalence of oral HPV16/18/6/11 infections was significantly reduced in vaccinated versus unvaccinated men (0.0% v 2.13%; Padj = .007). Accounting for vaccine uptake, the population-level effect of HPV vaccination on the burden of oral HPV16/18/6/11 infections was 17.0% overall, 25.0% in women, and 6.9% in men. Conclusion HPV vaccination was associated with reduction in vaccine-type oral HPV prevalence among young US adults. However, because of low vaccine uptake, the population-level effect was modest overall and particularly low in men.