Interleukin (IL)-17A is a pro-inflammatory cytokine in mice and humans. It is recognized as a key factor for the protection of mice against various pathogens, but it also underlies pathogenic inflammatory responses in numerous mouse models. The inborn errors of IL-17A- and IL-17F-mediated immunity identified in humans in the last decade have revealed that IL-17A and IL-17F are key players in mucocutaneous immunity to Candida albicans, and, to a lesser extent, Staphylococcus aureus. By contrast, there is currently no genetic evidence for a causal link between excess of IL-17 and autoimmunity, autoinflammation, or allergy in humans. We discuss here the physiological and pathological roles of mouse and human IL-17A and IL-17F in host defense and excessive inflammation. We highlight recent advances in our understanding of the consequences of deficient or excessive IL-17 immunity at various mucocutaneous sites, including the oral cavity, skin, intestine, lungs, and vagina.