Association of urinary concentrations of four chlorophenol pesticides with cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity in children and adolescents

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Feb;25(5):4516-4523. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-0771-y. Epub 2017 Nov 29.


This study was undertaken to determine the association of four chlorophenol pesticides with cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity in children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 on 242 children and adolescents, aged 6 to 18 years. The concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) in the urine were examined and their association with indices of obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors was determined. Multivariate linear regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were applied. Overall, 242 participants with mean (SD) ages of 11.3 (2.5) years completed the survey. After adjustment for confounders, a significant positive association was found between body mass index (BMI) z-score and waist circumference (WC) with 2,5-DCP (0.07 (95% CI 0.04, 0.1)) and 0.79 (95% CI 0.54, 1.03), respectively. A significant association of 2,4,5-TCP was only found with WC (0.23 (95% CI 0.0, 0.46), but the relationship with 2,4-DCP was not significant. 2,5-DCP had a significant relationship only with obesity (1.09 (95% CI 1.1, 1.19)), while 2,4-DCP and 2,4,5-TCP showed no significant correlation with overweight or obesity. 2,4-DCP showed a significant positive relationship with high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Moreover, 2,5-DCP showed a significant negative relationship only with systolic blood pressure and 2,4,5-TCP had a statistically significant inverse association with total cholesterol and HDL-C (-0.71 (95% CI -0.98, -0.45)). This study suggests potential associations of chlorophenol pesticides with overweight, obesity, lipid profile, and blood pressure in children and adolescents. Longitudinal studies are necessary to assess the clinical impact of these findings.

Keywords: Blood pressure; Children; Lipid profile; Obesity; Pesticides; Urinary chlorophenols.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / urine
  • Child
  • Chlorophenols / toxicity
  • Chlorophenols / urine*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects
  • Environmental Exposure / analysis*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iran
  • Linear Models
  • Lipid Metabolism / drug effects
  • Male
  • Metabolic Diseases / etiology*
  • Metabolic Diseases / urine
  • Pediatric Obesity / complications
  • Pediatric Obesity / urine*
  • Pesticides / toxicity
  • Pesticides / urine*
  • Risk Factors


  • Chlorophenols
  • Pesticides