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Review
, 39 (1), 243-257

Could Adverse Effects and Complications of Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty Be Decreased by Low-Power Laser Therapy?

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Review

Could Adverse Effects and Complications of Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty Be Decreased by Low-Power Laser Therapy?

Alexandre de Carvalho Mendes Paiva et al. Int Ophthalmol.

Abstract

Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) has been used for treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, pigmenter and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma being considered a low-risk procedure. Therefore, transitory and permanent adverse effects have been reported, including corneal changes, subclinical edema, and reduction in endothelial cells and in central corneal thickness. Despite rarer, serious corneal complications after SLT can be permanent and lead to visual impairment, central corneal haze, opacity and narrowing. The mechanism involves increase of vasoactive and chemotactic cytokines causing inflammatory infiltrate, destruction of stromal collagen by fibroblasts and increase of matrix metalloproteinases type 2, which impair reepithelization. SLT also increases free radical production and reduces antioxidant enzymes, resulting in endothelium damages. Low-power laser therapy (LPLT) has been used in regenerative medicine based on its biostimulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Biostimulation occurs through the interaction of laser photons with cytochrome C oxidase enzyme, which activates intracellular biochemical cascades causing synthesis of a number of molecules related to anti-inflammatory, regenerative effects, pain relief and reduction in edema. It has been showed that LPLT reduces gene expression related to pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases, and it increases expression of growth factors related to its proliferative and healing actions. Although radiations emitted by low-power lasers are considered safe and able to induce therapeutic effects, researches based on experimental models for glaucoma could bring important data if LPLT could be an alternative approach to improve acceptation for patients undergoing SLT.

Keywords: Biostimulation; Glaucoma; Low-power laser therapy; Regenerative medicine; Selective laser trabeculoplasty.

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