Inflammatory microenvironment in the initiation and progression of bladder cancer

Oncotarget. 2017 Oct 6;8(54):93279-93294. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.21565. eCollection 2017 Nov 3.


Accumulating evidence suggests the idea that chronic inflammation may play a critical role in various malignancies including bladder cancer and long-term treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is significantly effective in reducing certain cancer incidence and mortality. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to malignant transformation and the progression of bladder cancer in a chronically inflammatory environment remain largely unknown. In this review, we will describe the role of inflammation in the formation and development of bladder cancer and summarize the possible molecular mechanisms by which chronic inflammation regulates cell immune response, proliferation and metastasis. Understanding the novel function orchestrating inflammation and bladder cancer will hopefully provide us insights into their future clinical significance in preventing bladder carcinogenesis and progression.

Keywords: bladder cancer; development; inflammation; tumorigenesis.

Publication types

  • Review