Anaemia is a commonly diagnosed complication among patients suffering with chronic kidney disease. If left untreated, it may affect patient quality of life. There are several causes for anaemia in this patient population. As the kidney function deteriorates, together with medications and dietary restrictions, patients may develop iron deficiency, resulting in reduction of iron supply to the bone marrow (which is the body organ responsible for the production of different blood elements). Chronic kidney disease patients may not be able to utilise their own body's iron stores effectively and hence, many patients, particularly those receiving haemodialysis, may require additional iron treatment, usually provided by infusion.With further weakening of kidney function, patients with chronic kidney disease may need additional treatment with a substance called erythropoietin which drives the bone marrow to produce its own blood. This substance, which is naturally produced by the kidneys, becomes relatively deficient in patients with chronic kidney disease. Any patients will eventually require treatment with erythropoietin or similar products that are given by injection.Over the last few years, several iron and erythropoietin products have been licensed for treating anaemia in chronic kidney disease patients. In addition, several publications discussed the benefits of each treatment and possible risks associated with long term treatment. The current guidelines provide advice to health care professionals on how to screen chronic kidney disease patients for anaemia, which patients to investigate for other causes of anaemia, when and how to treat patients with different medications, how to ensure safe prescribing of treatment and how to diagnose and manage complications associated with anaemia and the drugs used for its treatment.