Precipitating hydrophobic injectable liquid embolization of intracranial vascular shunts: initial experience and technical note

J Neurosurg. 2018 Nov 1;129(5):1217-1222. doi: 10.3171/2017.6.JNS16447.


Precipitating hydrophobic injectable liquid is a new liquid embolic agent used mainly for intracranial neurointervention. The agent is ready to use (no shaking is required), since iodine, the radiopaque material, is covalently bonded into the compound. Additionally, due to the absence of tantalum, minimal artifacts are seen on postprocedure follow-up CT scans, and the agent penetrates into vessels smaller than 10 µm. The authors report their initial experience with the use of this agent in neurovascular intervention.

Keywords: AVF = arteriovenous fistula; AVM = arteriovenous malformation; CCF = carotid-cavernous fistula; DAVF = dural AVF; DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide; NBCA = N-butyl cyanoacrylate; PHIL; PHIL = precipitating hydrophobic injectable liquid; brain; embolization; interventional neurosurgery; precipitating hydrophobic injectable liquid; surgical technique; vascular malformations.

MeSH terms

  • Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations / diagnostic imaging
  • Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations / therapy*
  • Cerebral Angiography
  • Embolization, Therapeutic / methods*
  • Endovascular Procedures / methods*
  • Humans
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnostic imaging
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / therapy*
  • Treatment Outcome