Pancreatic cancer is projected to become the leading cause of cancer deaths by 2050. The risk for pancreatic cancer may be reduced by up to 27% by modifying lifestyle risk factors, most notably tobacco smoking. Based on analysis of more than 2 million unselected individuals from general population, this article quantified the risk of pancreatic cancer in relation to lifelong tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption status, both alone and in combination. It also provided a state-of-the-art review of animal studies on the effect of tobacco smoke and alcohol on genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic precursor lesions, as well as the role of immune microenvironment in pancreatic carcinogenesis activated by tobacco and alcohol.
Keywords: Alcohol; Genetically engineered mouse models; Pancreatic cancer; Population risk; Tobacco.
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