In skeletal muscle, new functions for vessels have recently emerged beyond oxygen and nutrient supply, through the interactions that vascular cells establish with muscle stem cells. Here, we demonstrate in human and mouse that endothelial cells (ECs) and myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs) interacted together to couple myogenesis and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo during skeletal muscle regeneration. Kinetics of gene expression of ECs and MPCs sorted at different time points of regeneration identified three effectors secreted by both ECs and MPCs. Apelin, Oncostatin M, and Periostin were shown to control myogenesis/angiogenesis coupling in vitro and to be required for myogenesis and vessel formation during muscle regeneration in vivo. Furthermore, restorative macrophages, which have been previously shown to support myogenesis in vivo, were shown in a 3D triculture model to stimulate myogenesis/angiogenesis coupling, notably through Oncostatin M production. Our data demonstrate that restorative macrophages orchestrate muscle regeneration by controlling myogenesis/angiogenesis coupling.
Keywords: angiogenesis; macrophages; muscle stem cells; myogenesis; skeletal muscle regeneration.
Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.