Key Learning Outcomes for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Education in Europe: A Modified Delphi Study

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2018 Aug;104(2):317-325. doi: 10.1002/cpt.962. Epub 2018 Jan 30.


Harmonizing clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CPT) education in Europe is necessary to ensure that the prescribing competency of future doctors is of a uniform high standard. As there are currently no uniform requirements, our aim was to achieve consensus on key learning outcomes for undergraduate CPT education in Europe. We used a modified Delphi method consisting of three questionnaire rounds and a panel meeting. A total of 129 experts from 27 European countries were asked to rate 307 learning outcomes. In all, 92 experts (71%) completed all three questionnaire rounds, and 33 experts (26%) attended the meeting. 232 learning outcomes from the original list, 15 newly suggested and 5 rephrased outcomes were included. These 252 learning outcomes should be included in undergraduate CPT curricula to ensure that European graduates are able to prescribe safely and effectively. We provide a blueprint of a European core curriculum describing when and how the learning outcomes might be acquired.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Consensus
  • Curriculum
  • Delphi Technique
  • Drug Prescriptions* / standards
  • Education, Medical, Undergraduate / methods*
  • Education, Medical, Undergraduate / standards
  • Educational Measurement / methods*
  • Educational Measurement / standards
  • Educational Status
  • Europe
  • Humans
  • Learning*
  • Pharmacology, Clinical / education*
  • Pharmacology, Clinical / standards
  • Surveys and Questionnaires