Effect of tooth brushing on gloss retention and surface roughness of five bulk-fill resin composites

J Esthet Restor Dent. 2018 Jan;30(1):59-69. doi: 10.1111/jerd.12350. Epub 2017 Dec 5.


Objectives: To determine the effects of tooth brushing on five bulk-fill resin based composites (RBCs).

Method: Ten samples of Filtek Supreme Enamel (control), Filtek One Bulk Fill, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill 2, SDR flow+, and Admira Fusion X-tra were light cured for 20 seconds using the Valo Grand curing light. After 24 hours storage in air at 37°C, specimens were brushed in a random order using Colgate OpticWhite dentifrice and a soft toothbrush. Surface gloss was measured prior to brushing, after 5,000, 10,000 and 15,000 back and forth brushing cycles. Surface roughness was measured after 15,000 brushing cycles using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and selected scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken. The data was examined using ANOVA and pair-wise comparisons using Scheffe's post-hoc multiple comparison tests (α = 0.05).

Results: Surface gloss decreased and the surface roughness increased after brushing. Two-way ANOVA showed that both the RBC and the number of brushing cycles had a significant negative effect on the gloss. One-way ANOVA showed that the RBC had a significant effect on the roughness after 15,000 brushing cycles. For both gloss and roughness, brushing had the least effect on the nano-filled control and nano-filled bulk-fill RBC, and the greatest negative effect on Admira Fusion X-tra. The SEM images provided visual agreement. There was an excellent linear correlation (R2 = 0.98) between the logarithm of the gloss and roughness.

Conclusion: After brushing, the bulk-fill RBCs were all rougher than the control nano-filled RBC. The nano-filled bulk-fill RBC was the least affected by brushing.

Clinical significance: Bulk-fill RBCs lose their gloss faster and become rougher than the nanofilled conventional RBC, Filtek Supreme Ultra. The nanofilled bulk-fill RBC was the least affected by tooth brushing.

Keywords: bulk fill resin based composites; gloss retention; operative dentistry.

MeSH terms

  • Composite Resins*
  • Dental Materials*
  • Materials Testing
  • Surface Properties
  • Toothbrushing


  • Composite Resins
  • Dental Materials