Aim: To determine whether repeated gadolinium-based contrast agent administration (GBCA) in children is associated with the development of increased T1-weighted signal intensity within the cerebellar dentate nucleus.
Materials and methods: With institutional review board approval for this The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study, a cohort of 41 patients under the age of 18 years who underwent at least four contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MR) examinations of the brain from 2005 to 2015 were identified. For each examination, both dentate nuclei were manually contoured, and the mean dentate nucleus-to-pons signal intensity (DN-P SI) ratio was calculated. The DN-P SI ratios from the last to first MRI examination were compared, and the correlation between DN-P SI ratio and cumulative gadolinium dose was calculated using a linear mixed effect model to control for potentially confounding variables.
Results: For the 41 patients in the cohort, there was a significant increase in the mean DN-P SI ratio from the first MRI to the last MRI examination (1.05 versus 1.11, p=0.004). After controlling for patient diagnosis, history of chemotherapy or radiation, sex, and age, there was a significant positive association between DN-P SI ratio and cumulative gadolinium dose (coefficient=0.401, p=0.032).
Conclusion: Repeated GBCA administration in children is associated with increased T1-weighted signal intensity within the dentate nucleus.
Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.