The enhancement of physical and cognitive abilities (i. e. concentration, vigilance, memory) has always been desirable for humans. The term pharmacological neuroenhancement refers to the use of legal or nonprescription psychoactive substances by healthy subjects with the intention of cognitive enhancement. To give the most prominent example, caffeine serves worldwide as a natural stimulant. Brain doping, however, specifies the use of illegal substances or prescription drugs beyond approval with the purpose of cognitive enhancement. Only amphetamines, methylphenidate and modafinil have significant effects on attentiveness, concentration and alertness, whereas other substances, such as anti-dementia drugs or anti-depressants failed to demonstrate cognitive enhancement in healthy subjects.
Keywords: Brain doping; Cognition; Enhancement; Neuroenhancement; Psychotropic drugs.