Background: Renal denervation (RDN) is a catheter-based intervention to treat patients with resistant hypertension. The biological effects of RDN are not fully understood, and randomized controlled trials have generated conflicting evidence. This report presents data from the Swedish Registry for Renal Denervation, an investigator-driven nationwide registry.
Purpose: To assess the safety and efficacy of RDN on patients with resistant hypertension in a real-world clinical setting.
Methods: This nationwide database contains patient characteristics, procedural details, and follow-up data on all RDN procedures performed in Sweden. Consecutive procedures between 2011 and 2015 were included.
Results: The data analysis consists of 252 patients (mean age 61 ± 10 years, 38% women; mean 4.5 ± 1.5 antihypertensive drugs). Office SBP and DBP and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) decreased 6 months after RDN (176 ± 23/97 ± 17 to 161 ± 26/91 ± 16 mmHg, both P < 0.001; and 155 ± 17/89 ± 14 to 147 ± 18/82 ± 12 mmHg, both P < 0.001). Significant office and ambulatory BP reductions persisted throughout the observation period of 36 months. Major procedure-related vascular complications occurred in four patients. Renal function and number of antihypertensive drugs were unchanged during follow-up.
Conclusion: In this complete national cohort, RDN was associated with a sustained reduction in office and ambulatory BP in patients with resistant hypertension. The procedure proved to be feasible and associated with a low-complication rate, including long-term adverse events.