Effects of Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) in the Treatment of Goblet Cell Carcinoma: A Prospective Cohort Study

Ann Surg Oncol. 2018 Feb;25(2):422-430. doi: 10.1245/s10434-017-6272-x. Epub 2017 Dec 6.


Background: Goblet cell carcinoma (GCC) of the appendix is a rare disease. Treatment options vary according to disease staging. Cytoreductive surgery in combination with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS + HIPEC) may improve survival in patients with peritoneal spreading.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the prognosis of patients with appendiceal GCC treated per protocol, and to evaluate the results of CRS+HIPEC in cases of peritoneal spreading.

Methods: From 2009 to 2016, a total of 48 GCC patients were referred to the European Neuroendocrine Tumour Center of Excellence, Aarhus University Hospital. All patients received treatment per protocol according to disease staging. In patients with localized disease, the treatment was a right hemicolectomy. Patients with peritoneal spread who met the inclusion criteria for CRS + HIPEC, as well as patients with high-risk features of developing peritoneal spread, received CRS + HIPEC. If too-extensive disease was found, palliative chemotherapy was offered.

Results: Overall survival for patients with localized disease (n = 6) or deemed at risk of peritoneal spread (n = 8) was 100% after a median follow-up of 3.5 years. In patients with peritoneal spread and eligible for CRS+HIPEC(n = 27), the median survival was 3.2 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-4.1] and the 5-year survival rate was 57%. In contrast, the median survival for patients with too-extensive intraperitoneal disease (n = 7) was 1.3 years (95% CI 0.6-2.0), with a 3-year survival rate of 20%.

Conclusions: Long-term survival can be achieved in patients with peritoneal spread treated with CRS + HIPEC. CRS+HIPEC was associated with a favorable outcome in GCC patients at high-risk of developing peritoneal spread.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Adenocarcinoma / therapy*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Appendiceal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures / mortality*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Goblet Cells / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermia, Induced / mortality*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy*
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Survival Rate