Dose responses of vitamin D3 supplementation on arterial stiffness in overweight African Americans with vitamin D deficiency: A placebo controlled randomized trial

PLoS One. 2017 Dec 7;12(12):e0188424. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188424. eCollection 2017.

Abstract

Background: Clinical trials are scant and equivocal on whether vitamin D can ameliorate arterial stiffness, particularly in populations at high risk for vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study determined the dose-response effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on arterial stiffness in overweight African Americans with vitamin D deficiency.

Methods: Seventy overweight African Americans (aged 13-45 years) with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels ≤ 20 ng/mL were randomized to monthly oral supplementation of 18,000 IU (~600 IU/day, n = 17), 60,000 IU (~2000 IU/day, n = 18), or 120,000 IU (~4000 IU/day, n = 18) of vitamin D3 or placebo (n = 17) for 16-weeks. The arterial stiffness measurements, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and carotid-radial PWV, were assessed by applanation tonometry at baseline and 16 weeks.

Results: Vitamin D3 supplementation demonstrated a dose-response increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations between groups (P<0.01). A significant downward linear trend was observed for carotid-femoral PWV (P<0.01), as the mean changes in carotid-femoral PWV across the four treatment groups were 0.13 m/s (95% CI: -0.24, 0.51 m/s) for placebo, 0.02 m/s (95% CI: -0.34, 0.38 m/s) for 600 IU/day group, -0.11 m/s (95% CI: -0.50, 0.27 m/s) for the 2,000 IU/day group, and -0.70 m/s (95% CI: -1.07, -0.32 m/s) for the 4,000 IU/day group. Findings were similar for carotid-radial PWV (P = 0.03), as the mean changes in carotid-radial PWV across the four treatment groups were 0.24 m/s (95% CI: -0.45, 0.92 m/s) for placebo, 0.09 m/s (95% CI: -0.54, 0.73 m/s) for 600 IU/day group, -0.57 m/s (95% CI: -1.20, 0.07 m/s) for the 2,000 IU/day group, and -0.61 m/s (95% CI: -1.25, 0.02 m/s) for the 4,000 IU/day group.

Conclusion: Arterial stiffness was improved by vitamin D3 supplementation in a dose-response manner in overweight African Americans with vitamin D deficiency.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • African Americans*
  • Arteries / physiopathology*
  • Cholecalciferol / administration & dosage*
  • Cholecalciferol / pharmacology
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Obesity / complications*
  • Placebos
  • Vascular Stiffness / drug effects*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / drug therapy*
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Placebos
  • Cholecalciferol