Venous Malformations of the Head and Neck

Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2018 Feb;51(1):173-184. doi: 10.1016/j.otc.2017.09.003.


Venous malformations (VMs) of the head and neck arise from deficits in the development of venous network. Clinically, VMs are highly variable, from small and asymptomatic varicosities to massive cervicofacial lesions. Therapeutic approaches include surgery; laser photocoagulation; sclerotherapy; and, more recently, systemic targeted drugs. This article discusses the natural history, diagnosis, and management of VMs.

Keywords: Head and neck; Vascular malformation; Venous malformation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Head / blood supply*
  • Humans
  • Low-Level Light Therapy
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Neck / blood supply*
  • Sclerotherapy
  • Surgical Procedures, Operative
  • Vascular Malformations / diagnosis*
  • Vascular Malformations / therapy*
  • Veins / abnormalities*
  • Veins / diagnostic imaging