Targeting Adenosine Signaling in Parkinson's Disease: From Pharmacological to Non-pharmacological Approaches

Front Neurosci. 2017 Nov 23;11:658. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00658. eCollection 2017.


Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease displaying negative impacts on both the health and social ability of patients and considerable economical costs. The classical anti-parkinsonian drugs based in dopaminergic replacement are the standard treatment, but several motor side effects emerge during long-term use. This mini-review presents the rationale to several efforts from pre-clinical and clinical studies using adenosine receptor antagonists as a non-dopaminergic therapy. As several studies have indicated that the monotherapy with adenosine receptor antagonists reaches limited efficacy, the usage as a co-adjuvant appeared to be a promising strategy. The formulation of multi-targeted drugs, using adenosine receptor antagonists and other neurotransmitter systems than the dopaminergic one as targets, have been receiving attention since Parkinson's disease presents a complex biological impact. While pharmacological approaches to cure or ameliorate the conditions of PD are the leading strategy in this area, emerging positive aspects have arisen from non-pharmacological approaches and adenosine function inhibition appears to improve both strategies.

Keywords: A2AAR; Parkinson disease; adenosine; dopaminergic system; neurodegeneration.

Publication types

  • Review