Interleukin-32 theta (IL-32θ) is newly identified isoform of IL-32 which plays a vital role in inflammatory responses. Like IL-32α and IL-32β, IL-32θ isoform acts as an intracellular inflammatory modulator. It results in reduction of IL-1β production by attenuating the expression of PU.1 and inhibition of monocytes differentiation into macrophages. IL-32θ hinders TNF-α expression by inhibiting p38 MAPK and inhibitor of κB (IκB) as well. It also reserved STAT3-ZEB1 pathway leading to the inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness. Hence, it can be concluded that IL-32θ is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that can act as a tumor suppressor and can play vital role in colon cancer therapies. IL-32θ also plays a crucial role in immune system responses and cellular differentiation during disease pathogenesis. To our best knowledge this is the first ever review to condense the importance, precise mode of action in disease progression and latent remedial implications of IL-32θ in several inflammatory disorders.
Keywords: Cancer; IL-32θ; cellular differentiation; inflammation; remedial; tumor suppression.
Conflict of interest statement
IL-32θ Inhibits Stemness and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Cancer Stem Cells via the STAT3 Pathway in Colon CancerY Bak et al. Oncotarget 7 (6), 7307-17. PMID 26824417.Interleukin (IL)-32 is a well-known cytokine associated with inflammation, virus infections and cancer. IL-32θ is a newly identified isoform of IL-32, whose function has …
IL-32θ Inhibits Monocytic Differentiation of Leukemia Cells by Attenuating Expression of Transcription Factor PU.1MS Kim et al. Oncotarget 6 (6), 4394-405. PMID 25726525.PU.1 is a key transcription factor regulating the myeloid differentiation. PU.1-induced monocytic differentiation into macrophage is also important for blood cancer devel …
IL-32θ Downregulates CCL5 Expression Through Its Interaction With PKCδ and STAT3Y Bak et al. Cell Signal 26 (12), 3007-15. PMID 25280942.Interleukin-32 (IL-32) exists in several isoforms and plays an important role in inflammatory response. Recently, we identified a new isoform, IL-32θ, and performed a mic …
IL-32: A Novel Pluripotent Inflammatory Interleukin, Towards Gastric Inflammation, Gastric Cancer, and Chronic Rhino SinusitisMB Khawar et al. Mediators Inflamm 2016, 8413768. PMID 27143819. - ReviewA vast variety of nonstructural proteins have been studied for their key roles and involvement in a number of biological phenomenona. Interleukin-32 is a novel cytokine w …
A Panoramic Spectrum of Complex Interplay Between the Immune System and IL-32 During Pathogenesis of Various Systemic Infections and InflammationB Khawar et al. Eur J Med Res 20 (1), 7. PMID 25626592. - ReviewCytokines have always been of great interest due to their vast potential and participation in the progression and pathogenesis of various ailments. Interleukin-32 (IL-32) …
Cited by 1 PubMed Central articles
Interleukin-32: Frenemy in Cancer?S Han et al. BMB Rep 52 (3), 165-174. PMID 30638183. - ReviewInterleukin-32 (IL-32) was originally identified in natural killer (NK) cells activated by IL-2 in 1992. Thus, it was named NK cell transcript 4 (NK4) because of its unkn …