Purpose: To analyze technique, outcomes, and complications of a large series of pediatric percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) procedures performed at 4 tertiary pediatric centers.
Materials and methods: Retrospective multicenter study of PCNs performed during an 11-year period. Six hundred seventy-five PCNs were performed on 441 patients (median age: 4 y, range: 1 d-18 y, median weight: 17 kg, range: 0.7-112 kg); 31% were younger than 1 year. The most frequent indications for PCN procedures included hydronephrosis (57%), calculus (14%), and infection (12%). Forty-five percent of patients had severe and 32% had moderate hydronephrosis.
Results: Technical success was 99% (n = 668); 7 failures occurred from lost access, during tract dilatation (n = 5) and during staghorn calculi without dilatation (n = 2). General anesthesia was used in 73% of procedures. Combined ultrasound and fluoroscopy was used in 98% of procedures. Of the 668 procedures, 561 (84%) were primary nephrostomy insertions, and 107 (16%) were a variety of exchanges (secondary catheter insertions). Twenty-four of 675 (4%) were transplanted kidneys. Access sites included lower (47%), mid (28%), and upper (12%) poles and pelvis (11%). Catheters were predominantly 7-8 French (n = 352). The mean catheter dwell time was 25 days (0-220 d). Total primary catheter days were 14,482, with an additional 2,241 days after secondary procedures. Follow-up in 653/668 (98%) procedures documented elective removal (79%) and salvage procedures (21%), which included wire exchange (8.7%), nephroureteral stent/catheter conversion (8.8%), and tube upsizing (3.5%). Periprocedural complications occurred in 30/668 (4.5%) procedures: 1 major (0.1%) self-limiting hematuria requiring transfusion and 29 (4.4%) minor complications.
Conclusions: PCN is safe and successful in children of all ages, with few major complications. PCN in children is associated with specific technical challenges and requires ongoing management tailored to the very young to achieve good outcomes.
Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.