Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and urotoxicity ameliorative effects of γ-humulene containing active fraction of Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC

Inflammopharmacology. 2019 Apr;27(2):409-420. doi: 10.1007/s10787-017-0423-3. Epub 2017 Dec 9.


In folklore medicine, the plant Emilia sonchifolia, belonging to the family Asteraceae, is used for treating tumour and inflammation. In our previous studies, we have done a thorough phytochemical investigation of E. sonchifolia with a report on its potent antimetastatic activity. Further, we isolated and characterised its active fraction (AFES) containing the major compound γ-humulene with an evaluation of the antiangiogenic effect of AFES (5 mg/kg b.wt.). In the first part of the present study, AFES in different concentrations was used for the assessment of its possible anti-inflammatory effect employing three in vivo inflammatory models. Further using the most effective concentration of AFES 5 mg/kg b.wt, its effect on proinflammatory cytokine levels was recorded along with a confirmatory gene expression analysis. The results manifested with a reduction in the paw oedema significantly decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein, nitric oxide and also there was an efficient downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide. Urotoxicity is one of the major side effects of conventional chemotherapy. So in the second part of the study, we used AFES in combination with the conventional therapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in vivo in mice. The effect of AFES on urotoxicity was assessed from various biochemical parameters, cytokine markers and finally with a histopathology of the bladder. The current study revealed the protective effects of AFES, implicating reduced levels of urea nitrogen, by revamping of glutathione and marker cytokine levels towards positive amelioration. The results obtained altogether proved the safeguarding effect of AFES in murine experimental models.

Keywords: Cyclophosphamide; Cytokines; Emilia sonchifolia; Inflammation; Urotoxicity; γ-Humulene.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Asteraceae / chemistry*
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Cell Line
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Edema / drug therapy
  • Edema / metabolism
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Male
  • Medicine, Traditional / methods
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Monocyclic Sesquiterpenes
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Sesquiterpenes / adverse effects*
  • Sesquiterpenes / pharmacology*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Cytokines
  • Monocyclic Sesquiterpenes
  • Plant Extracts
  • Sesquiterpenes
  • Nitric Oxide
  • humulene
  • C-Reactive Protein