Tissue engineering combining cross-linked serum scaffolds with bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells has displayed excellent results for repair of maxillofacial bone defects in animal models, but it had not been tested in humans yet. We present here a pilot clinical trial using autologous bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (H-MSV) grown in a serum cross-linked scaffold (BioMax) for treatment of maxillary cysts in 9 patients. Cells obtained from alveolar bone were seeded in the BioMax scaffold prepared from autologous serum, expanded under GMP conditions, and subjected to osteogenic differentiation for 3-4 weeks before application. Evolution of the cystic cavity was followed by computerized tomography (CT) for 7 months. There was no inflammation or other adverse effects, and the CT density of the cyst interior increased significantly after the treatment. The ratio of the CT values after/before treatment was (mean ± SE) 2.52 ± 0.45; in contrast, the density of the contralateral control area of spongy alveolar bone without treatment did not change (ratio after/before, 0.99 ± 0.14). In conclusion, cell therapy with BioMax could be considered as an alternative therapy for maxillary bone defects and other losses of bone substance. Further research with allogeneic cells would be useful for reducing costs and improving logistics.
Clinical trial registration numbers: EudraCT 2010-024246-30 and NCT01389661.
Keywords: Bone regeneration; Cell therapy; Maxillofacial surgery; Mesenchymal stem cells; Regenerative medicine; Tissue engineering.
Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.