Background: Typical and atypical carcinoids represent approximately 2% of all lung tumors. Survival of patients with typical bronchial carcinoids, unlike the survival of patients with most lung tumors, is generally long but dependent on stage. We report the findings of the Ochsner Medical Center/Louisiana State University (LSU) Health Sciences Center neuroendocrine tumor (NET) program.
Methods: A database with all patients seen at the Ochsner Medical Center/LSU NET program was queried for patients with bronchopulmonary NET. We included patients who had confirmed pathologic bronchopulmonary carcinoid and who had at least 1 clinic visit. Patients with large or small cell NETs or diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia were excluded.
Results: A total of 169 patients seen from January 1996 to March 2015 met the inclusion criteria. The mean age at diagnosis was 53 years. Of the tumors, 51% percent (86/169) were well-differentiated, 12% (21/169) were moderately differentiated, and 85% and 53% were positive on positron emission tomography and octreotide scanning, respectively. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 88% and 81% for well-differentiated tumors and 80% and 42% for moderately differentiated tumors, respectively. The 10-year survival rates stratified by Ki-67 index ranges 0-2%, >2%-10%, and >10% were 90%, 72%, and 44%, respectively (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Overall, patients with bronchial carcinoids have long 5- and 10-year survival rates. We found significant survival differences between nodal status, differentiation status, and carcinoid phenotype. Interestingly, the difference in survival stratified by Ki-67 indices was statistically significant despite its absence in the World Health Organization grading system. As with gastroenteropancreatic NETs, Ki-67 index could become a valuable prognostic indicator for bronchial carcinoids.
Keywords: Carcinoid tumor; Ki-67 antigen; lung cancer.