Background: The aim of present study was to examine the associations of total zinc, iron, copper and selenium intakes from diet and supplements with depression.
Methods: Cross-sectional study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2014 in the present study. Logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline models were applied to examine the associations of total zinc, iron, copper and selenium intakes with depression.
Results: A total of 14834 adults aged 18 years or older (7399 men and 7435 women) were included in the present study. Total zinc, iron, copper and selenium intakes were inversely associated with depression in unadjusted model and age- and gender-adjusted model. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of depression were 0.68 (0.49-0.94) and 0.46 (0.32-0.67) for the highest versus lowest quartile of copper and selenium intakes, respectively. The inverse associations of depression were statistically significant for the quartile 3 versus lowest quartile of total zinc (OR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.49-0.99) and iron intake (OR: 0.66 95% CI: 0.50-0.87). Compared to those below the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance), participants who met the RDA for zinc (OR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56-0.99), copper (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.56-0.82) and selenium (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.71) had significantly lower odds of depression.
Limitations: This was a cross-sectional study, limiting causal inferences. Assessment of depression was based on a self- report scale.
Conclusion: Total zinc, iron, copper and selenium intakes may be inversely associated with depression.
Keywords: Copper; Cross-sectional study; Depression; Iron; Selenium; Zinc.
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