Magnetic Marking and Intraoperative Detection of Primary Draining Lymph Nodes in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Using Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Additional Diagnostic Value

Molecules. 2017 Dec 9;22(12):2192. doi: 10.3390/molecules22122192.


Sentinel lymph node dissection (sLND) using a magnetometer and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a tracer was successfully applied in prostate cancer (PCa). Radioisotope-guided sLND combined with extended pelvic LND (ePLND) achieved better node removal, increasing the number of affected nodes or the detection of sentinel lymph nodes outside the established ePLND template. We determined the diagnostic value of additional magnetometer-guided sLND after intraprostatic SPION-injection in high-risk PCa. This retrospective study included 104 high-risk PCa patients (PSA >20 ng/mL and/or Gleason score ≥ 8 and/or cT2c) from a prospective cohort who underwent radical prostatectomy with magnetometer-guided sLND and ePLND. The diagnostic accuracy of sLND was assessed using ePLND as a reference standard. Lymph node metastases were found in 61 of 104 patients (58.7%). sLND had a 100% diagnostic rate, 96.6% sensitivity, 95.6% specificity, 96.6% positive predictive value, 95.6% negative predictive value, 3.4% false negative rate, and 4.4% false positive rate (detecting lymph node metastases outside the ePLND template). These findings demonstrate the high sensitivity and additional diagnostic value of magnetometer-guided sLND, exceeding that of ePLND through the individualized extension of PLND or the detection of sentinel lymph nodes/lymph node metastases outside the established node template in high-risk PCa.

Keywords: lymphadenectomy; magnetometer; prostate cancer; sentinel node; superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION).

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Humans
  • Lymph Node Excision
  • Magnetite Nanoparticles / chemistry
  • Magnetometry
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Prospective Studies
  • Prostatectomy
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Radiopharmaceuticals / administration & dosage*
  • Radiopharmaceuticals / chemistry
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sentinel Lymph Node / surgery*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Magnetite Nanoparticles
  • Radiopharmaceuticals