Association of serum testosterone levels and testicular volume in adult patients

Andrologia. 2018 Apr;50(3). doi: 10.1111/and.12933. Epub 2017 Dec 12.


A retrospective observational study was undertaken to gain new insight into the relationship between total testicular volume and levels of serum testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin and clinical variables. A total of 312 men with sexual dysfunction or infertility were divided into groups A and B (156 each) on the basis of basal plasma testosterone ≤5 nmol/L of ≥12 nmol/L respectively. Group A was subclassified in A1 (primary hypogonadism) and A2 (secondary hypogonadism). There were significant differences in total testicular volume between group A (15.33 ± 11.94 ml) and group B (36.74 ± 6.9; p < .001) and also between subgroup A1 (11.07 ± 8.49 ml) and subgroup A2 (23.62 ± 13.04 ml; p < .001). Only 13.5% of patients in group B had a total testicular volume <30 ml. Differences in all studied parameters were found between group A and group B. There were no variations when comparing age, body mass index and testosterone in groups A1 and A2 . The use of total testicular volume and body mass index together for predicting testosterone levels yields a sensitivity and specificity of 85.3% and 86.5% respectively. Logistic regression analysis, univariate and multivariate models, using the measurement of total testicular volume resulted in a high capacity to predict testosterone levels.

Keywords: hypogonadism; infertility; sexual dysfunction; testicular volume; testosterone.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Body Mass Index
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood
  • Humans
  • Hypogonadism / blood
  • Hypogonadism / pathology*
  • Infertility, Male / blood
  • Infertility, Male / pathology*
  • Luteinizing Hormone / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Organ Size / physiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Testis / pathology*
  • Testosterone / blood*
  • Young Adult


  • Testosterone
  • Luteinizing Hormone
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone