Minerals play a major role in regulating cardiovascular function. Imbalances in electrolyte minerals are frequent and potentially hazardous occurrences that may lead to the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Transition metals, such as iron, zinc, copper and selenium, play a major role in cell metabolism. However, there is controversy over the effects of dietary and supplemental intake of these metals on cardiovascular risk factors and events. Since their pro-oxidant or antioxidant functions can have different effects on cardiovascular health. While deficiency of these trace elements can cause cardiovascular dysfunction, several studies have also shown a positive association between metal serum levels and cardiovascular risk factors and events. Thus, a J- or U-shaped relationship between the transition minerals and cardiovascular events has been proposed. Given the existing controversies, large, well-designed, long-term, randomized clinical trials are required to better examine the effects of trace mineral intake on cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in the general population. In this review, we discuss the role of dietary and/or supplemental iron, copper, zinc, and selenium on cardiovascular health. We will also clarify their clinical applications, benefits, and harms in CVDs prevention.
Keywords: Trace mineral; cardiovascular disease; copper; iron; selenium; zinc.