Dietary patterns and the risk of coronary heart disease among Jordanians: A case-control study

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2018 Mar;28(3):262-269. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2017.10.026. Epub 2017 Nov 8.


Background and aims: Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be significant risk factors in the development of coronary heart diseases (CHD). The contribution degree of these dietary risk factors in CHD development in non-westernized countries is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate several dietary choices and their potential association with CHD.

Methods and results: A case-control study was conducted at Prince Hamza Hospital, a referral center for coronary angiography in Amman, Jordan. Four-hundred patients referring for elective coronary angiography with clinical suspicion of coronary artery disease were enrolled. Data was collected using interview-based questionnaires. Dietary patterns were derived using Principal Component Analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary choices and CHD. Three dietary patterns were identified. The "Healthy Dietary Pattern", which presented a diet rich in olive oil, fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, fish, and low meat intake, was associated with a significant decrease in the odds of CHD (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.28-0.98). The "High-Fiber Pattern", which is mainly composed of legumes and bulgur, significantly reduced the odd of CHD (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.27-0.92) for the fourth quartile compared to the first one. No significant association was found between CHD and the "Western Dietary Pattern", which is loaded with refined grains, sweets and deserts, sugary drinks, and deep fried foods.

Conclusions: The "Healthy Dietary Pattern" and the "High-Fiber Pattern" were associated with a decrease in odds of CHD among Jordanians.

Keywords: Coronary heart disease; Healthy dietary pattern; Jordan; Middle East; Risk factors; Western dietary pattern.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Disease / diagnostic imaging
  • Coronary Disease / epidemiology*
  • Coronary Disease / prevention & control*
  • Diet, Healthy*
  • Diet, Western / adverse effects*
  • Dietary Fiber / administration & dosage
  • Fabaceae
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Fruit
  • Humans
  • Jordan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Meat
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutritive Value
  • Olive Oil
  • Protective Factors
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Risk Reduction Behavior
  • Seafood
  • Vegetables
  • Whole Grains


  • Dietary Fiber
  • Olive Oil